In a cow-calf operation where cattle are often fed in pens for a portion of the year, pens are generally cleaned at least annually to remove accumulated manure and bedding. While backgrounders and feedlots have enforced protocols to manage and store manure, general guidelines apply to all producers who are handling and storing manure.
Manure offers a long-term source of nutrients that can influence soil properties, increase soil carbon and nitrogen, and alter soil phosphorus and potassium concentrations along with other nutrients. Best management practices must be followed across all sectors from cow/calf to backgrounders and feedlots. Continue reading
Manure, when used properly, is a valuable resource for the cropping or forage sectors, but handling it comes with a cost. While many producers extensively winter feed their cattle which reduces or eliminates the cost and time associated with manure removal, hauling and application, this article discusses traditional management of livestock manure.
The traditional management of livestock manure involves removal from drylot pens each spring to be utilized as fertilizer on crop or pasture, in either raw or composted form. The application of manure has short-term and long-term effects on crop yields. In the short term, the addition of nutrients (such as nitrogen) in manure may immediately increase yields. In the long-term, increases in yields may be due to delayed nutrient release or improvements in soil quality as the result of a series of complex interactions between the nutrients, organic matter and organisms in the manure and the existing conditions of the soil. Continue reading
Nutrients from agriculture can be lost to the atmosphere as gaseous emissions such as ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and dinitrogen. Other forms of nutrients, such as nitrates, may also be lost by leaching down into soils and possibly entering aquifers, or as organic molecules and solutes that can runoff into surface waters. These nutrient losses can pose risks to the environment and public health, and to society in general and because of this, the livestock sector is often under public scrutiny for its role in nutrient management. Producers who improve their on-farm nutrient management methods stand to benefit by reducing fertilizer use through incorporating nitrogen-fixing legumes, or extending their grazing to minimize manure spreading costs and gaseous losses.
In the previous episode of the Beef Research School, Dr. Paul Jefferson explained how to maximize your forage acres, including when to rejuvenate and when to reseed. In this episode, we take a closer look at rejuvenation methods.
Dr. Bart Lardner with the Western Beef Development Centre discusses why producers should consider fertilizing hay and pasture land. In addition to chemical fertilizer or composted manure, in-field winter feeding systems are another strategy to consider. Continue reading
Cattle manure is a valuable resource in agriculture when utilized properly. On an annual basis, approximately 3.4 million hectares of land in Canada receives animal manure as an amendment to improve soil fertility and quality for crop growth. Manure from cattle contains macronutrients and micronutrients that plants need. It also has considerable amounts of organic matter that can improve soil tilth. Land application of cattle manure is an effective way of recycling nutrients. As such, cattle manure that is hauled out and applied to farm fields or deposited directly by grazing or overwintered cattle reduces reliance on commercial fertilizers and helps to sustain land productivity.
The latest video in the Beef Research School series features Dr. Jeff Schoenau, University of Saskatchewan researcher and professor of soil science. Continue reading
This article written by Dr. Steve Hendrick, from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan, originally appeared in the February 2013 issue of Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Connection magazine and is reprinted with permission.
Ever wondered why some cows remain thin while the rest of your herd thrives? Although there are lots of possibilities for this, Johne’s disease is becoming more commonly recognized in Saskatchewan beef herds. Cows with Johne’s disease are typically in their prime (3 to 6 years of age) and often have evidence of diarrhea on their tail. What most producers don’t realize is that Continue reading
Feed efficiency in cattle can make or break profitability in the feeding sector, and has environmental implications. The costs of buying a calf and the feed needed to finish it are the two largest variable expenses facing the beef cattle feeding sector. Feed costs are higher than ever because of poor growing conditions in major grain producing countries, because of the use of feed grains in ethanol production, and because of increasing competition of land for crop production versus urban development.
Growth promotants are among the many sophisticated tools used by feedlots and other producers to raise more beef, more rapidly, using less feed, while maintaining high standards of animal health, carcass quality and food safety. Growth promotants include ionophores, growth implants, and beta-agonists. A number of products within each category are approved for use by Health Canada’s Veterinary Drug Directorate. Continue reading
E. coli O157:H7, the cause for the recent, extensive beef recall, is one of the few types of E. coli that is dangerous to humans. It is shed in the feces of many warm-blooded animals, including deer, geese, dogs and cattle. E. coli O157:H7 is harmless to most animals but can be dangerous to humans if contaminated water or undercooked meat is consumed, especially to those with an immature or weakened immune system. Beef can become contaminated by cattle hides and equipment during slaughter and processing or by food handlers in the retail sector.
Potentially dangerous pathogens are uncommon in beef, which is due in large part to the industry focus on combatting E. coli O157:H7. Continue reading