With increasing input costs and many regions having poor growing conditions in recent years, there is pressure this spring to reduce input costs wherever possible. It is important to make these decisions carefully – sometimes the short-term savings are out-weighed by much greater long-term costs. Skimping on your vaccination or vitamin and mineral programs may save you in the short term, but can set you up for long-lasting negative consequences.
Not meeting minimum nutritional needs increases treatment and death rates
While vitamin and mineral supplements may seem like an added or unwanted cost, maintaining or enhancing your nutrition program can help prevent both reproductive wrecks and sickness in the future.
Vitamin supplementation becomes even more critical during and after drought. Vitamins A and E come from leafy green plants, so these vitamins are likely to be deficient when cows are eating drought-impacted forages. Calves born the spring following a drought have a much higher risk of vitamin A deficiency, and calves with severe vitamin A deficiency are nearly three times more likely to die than those with higher vitamin A levels. Vitamin A can be provided in an injectable form, but the typical vitamin A, D and E injectable supplement does not contain enough vitamin E to improve an animal’s mineral status and vitamin E must be supplemented another way.
In addition to vitamins, mineral supplementation is also important. Previous work on western Canadian herds has shown that calves with low mineral levels at birth were six times more likely to be treated for pneumonia, scours, or navel infection than their counterparts. In the same study, researchers found that calves born to cows with poor mineral status were also more likely to die before weaning.
Copper deficiency is an ongoing concern, especially in western Canada where soils tend to be deficient in copper. The risk can be even higher during a drought as feed and water both can be high in sulfates which binds to copper and makes it less available to the animals. Copper deficiency can lead to reproductive wrecks so be sure you have adequate copper in your mineral program to help give cows their best chance to rebreed and produce healthy calves next year.
Talk to your nutritionist, veterinarian, or local extension specialist about a vitamin and mineral program that is a good fit for your operation and location.
In extreme cases, injectable minerals can fix deficiencies much more rapidly than feed supplements. Injectable minerals can be obtained from your veterinarian but may need to be imported from the United States or overseas.
Insufficient vaccination puts you at risk for a disease outbreak
Vaccinations may be another cost producers are considering cutting, but this is risky. A survey of Canadian beef producers showed that the reason many producers justify not vaccinating their cow herd is because they believe they have a closed herd. If you buy in any females or bulls, have fence line contact with other herds, use community pastures, expose your herd to wildlife, or any exposure to other cattle or places where cattle have been, your herd is not closed and there is a real risk for disease exposure.
While the cost of vaccination may add up, it is cheap insurance to prevent large scale disease outbreaks and expensive losses associated with disease. The cost to treat a small number of calves or the death loss associated with even a small disease outbreak often outweigh the cost of a vaccine.
- If you will be using a community pasture or other commingled grazing situation , reproductive diseases like vibrio or campylobacteriosis become more of a risk. Ask your vet about protecting your herd from these (and other) diseases.
- There is increasing evidence that providing intra-nasal vaccinations to calves at birth reduces the chance of sickness and death when calves go out to pasture.
- Pre-breeding is the ideal time to vaccinate your cow herd, but other times of the year may be more practical for you and fit within the allowable times for vaccination. If you didn’t get around to vaccinating pre-breeding, or won’t have time, discuss alternative vaccination timing with your veterinarian.
Avoid long-term problems caused by short-term solutions
Beef producers continue to prove their resilience and creativity during challenging times. Reducing expenses can be a helpful management strategy, but choose wisely and avoid cutting back on vaccination and nutrition programs which can have dramatic, long-lasting and costly consequences.
Preventing reproductive failure: https://www.beefresearch.ca/research-topic.cfm/preventing-reproductive-failure-in-cow-calf-herds-3
Vitamin and minerals:
Consequences of copper deficiency https://www.beefresearch.ca/blog/copper-deficiency-takes-heavy-toll-2/
Drought and mineral nutrition:
BRD vaccine cost benefit calculator: https://www.beefresearch.ca/blog/calf-vaccines-protect-investment/
Intranasal vaccines : https://www.beefresearch.ca/blog/intranasal-vaccines-are-timely-and-effective/
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